Necessary Joinder CPLR § 1001

CPLR § 1001 Necessary joinder of parties

Censi v Cove Landings, Inc., 2009 NY Slip Op 06496 (App. Div., 2nd, 2009)

Necessary parties are persons "who might be inequitably affected by a
judgment in the action" and must be made plaintiffs or defendants (see
CPLR 1001[a]).
CPLR 1001(b) requires the court to order such persons
summoned, where they are subject to the court's jurisdiction. If
jurisdiction over such necessary parties can be obtained only by their
consent or appearance, the court is to determine, in accordance with
CPLR 1001(b), whether justice requires that the action proceed in their
absence (see CPLR 1001 [b]). The nonjoinder of necessary parties
may be raised at any stage of the proceedings, by any party or by the
court on its own motion, including for the first time on appeal
(see City of New York v Long Is. Airports Limousine Serv. Corp., 48 NY2d 469, 475; Matter of Lezette v Board of Educ., Hudson City School Dist., 35 NY2d 272, 282; Matter of Jim Ludtka Sporting Goods, Inc. v City of Buffalo School Dist., 48 AD3d 1103, 1103-1104; Matter of Storrs v Holcomb, 245 AD2d 943, 944 n 1; Wrobel v La Ware, 229 AD2d 861; Matter of Dreyfuss v Board of Educ. of Union Free School Dist. No. 3, Town of Huntington, 42 AD2d 845; Alexander, Practice Commentaries, McKinney's Cons Laws of NY, Book 7B, CPLR C1003:1; see also CPLR 1003).

Here, the record indicates the possible existence of necessary parties
who have not been joined
, namely, the owners of the remainder of the
roadbed of Fish Cove Road. Those parties' interests in real property
may be affected by that portion of the Supreme Court's order which,
upon searching the record, declared Fish Cove Road to be a public
highway, and effectively granted the public an easement to pass over
their lands (see Sorbello v Birchez Assocs., LLC, 61 AD3d 1225; Schaffer v Landolfo, 27 AD3d 812; Dunkin Donuts of N.Y., Inc. v Mid-Valley Oil Co., Inc., 14 AD3d 590, 592; Matter of Princess Bldg. Corp. v Zoning Bd. of Appeals of Town of Huntington, 307 AD2d 972; Hitchcock v Boyack, 256 AD2d 842, 844; Buckley v MacDonald, 231 AD2d 599, 600; Matter of Lehrer v Wallace,
24 AD2d 602, 603). Thus, the court should not have made this
determination upon searching the record without first determining
whether all necessary parties were joined.
Under the circumstances of
this case, "the questions of whether there are any . . . necessary
parties who should be joined in this action and, if so, the appropriate
procedural disposition for effecting joinder should not be determined
by this [C]ourt in the first instance" (De Ruscio v Jackson, 164
AD2d 684, 688). Accordingly, we remit the matter to the Supreme Court,
Suffolk County, to hold a hearing to determine whether there are any
necessary parties who should be joined in this action and, if so, to
compel their joinder, subject to any affirmative defenses, and if
joinder cannot be effectuated, to determine, pursuant to CPLR 1001(b),
whether the action should proceed in the absence of any necessary
parties.

It's almost always a good idea to invite everyone to the party.  Note that this can be brought up on appeal for the first time, so, if you aren't careful, you can lose, even when you win.

The bold is mine.

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