Failure to follow CPLR R. 511 makes venue discretionary

CPLR R. 511 Change of place of trial

CPLR § 501 Contractual provisions fixing venue

Tatko Stone Prods., Inc. v Davis-giovinzazzo Constr. Co., Inc., 2009 NY Slip Op 06210 (App. Div., 3rd, 2009)

We note first that, having raised the issue of improper venue as an
affirmative defense in the answer, Great American did not waive the
issue and could thereafter rely upon this defense in seeking dismissal
of the action (see Lischinskaya v Carnival Corp., 56 AD3d 116, 118 [2008], lv denied
___ NY3d ___ [June 30, 2009]). In addition, as Great American did not
follow the precise statutory procedures outlined under CPLR 511 (see CPLR 511 [a], [b]), the relief sought in its application became a discretionary matter
(see Callanan Indus. v Sovereign Constr. Co., 44 AD2d 292, 295 [1974])[FN1]. While Supreme Court may have erred in deciding the matter on subject matter jurisdiction grounds (see Matter of Lucchese v Rotella, 97 AD2d 645, 646 [1983], affd
60 NY2d 815 [1983]), we find that dismissal of the complaint was
nevertheless warranted based on the venue provision of the bond (see CPLR 501; see also Dogmoch Intl. Corp. v Dresdner Bank AG, 304 AD2d 396, 397 [2003]; Premium Risk Group v Legion Ins. Co., 294 AD2d 345, 345-346 [2002]; B & H Interior Contr. v Yonkers Contr. Co., 234 AD2d 44, 45 [1996]; Alwinseal, Inc. v Travelers Indem. Co., 61 AD2d 803, 803-804 [1978]).

"It is well established that forum selection clauses are valid
absent a showing that enforcement would be unreasonable and unjust or
that the clause is invalid because of fraud or overreaching" (VOR Assoc. v Ontario Aircraft Sales & Leasing, 198 AD2d 638, 639 [1993] [citations omitted]; see Brooke Group v JCH Syndicate 488, 87 NY2d 530, 534 [1996]; Harry Casper, Inc. v Pines Assoc., L.P., 53 AD3d 764,
764-765 [2008]). Here, in seeking to enforce the bond as a third-party
beneficiary of it, plaintiff, in absence of any evidence of
unreasonableness, fraud or overreaching (compare 3H Enters. v Bennett, 276 AD2d 965, 966 [2000], lv denied 96 NY2d 710 [2001]), is bound by its forum selection provision
(see B & H Interior Contr. v Yonkers Contr. Co., 234 AD2d at 45; Buhler v French Woods Festival of Performing Arts, 154 AD2d 303, 305 [1989]; Alwinseal, Inc. v Travelers Indem. Co., 61 AD2d at 803-804; Callanan Indus. v Sovereign Constr. Co., 44 AD2d at 294; Khan Enter. Constr., Inc. v P & K Contr., Inc., 13 Misc 3d 1207[A] [2006]; Flush Metal Partition Corp. v Nuovo Corp., 57 Misc 2d 900, 901 [1968]; Frontier Excavating v St. Paul Fire & Mar. Ins. Co., 50 Misc 2d 232, 233 [1966]; see generally Harry Casper, Inc. v Pines Assoc., L.P.,
53 AD3d at 765). As plaintiff has advanced unpersuasive grounds upon
which this Court might disregard the forum selection provision in the
bond, we affirm dismissal of the action (see e.g. Dogmoch Intl. Corp. v Dresdner Bank AG, 304 AD2d at 397; Premium Risk Group v Legion Ins. Co., 294 AD2d at 346; British W. Indies Guar. Trust Co. v Banque Internationale A Luxembourg, 172 AD2d 234, 234 [1991]; Di Ruocco v Flamingo Beach Hotel & Casino, 163 AD2d 270, 271-272 [1990]).

Particularly unpersuasive is plaintiff's claim that dismissal is
improper because Great American failed to demonstrate that the subject
bond was "properly authenticated." While it would have been preferable
for Great American to include the entire, properly-executed bond
agreement in its moving papers, we are unpersuaded that this omission
was fatal to the requested relief. First, there can be no real dispute
that a valid and enforceable surety bond exists; indeed, plaintiff is
relying upon it for relief in the first instance. More importantly,
Great American submitted an affidavit of a senior claims analyst who
averred that the subject bond contained a "venue provision" which
requires that this action be venued in New Jersey. The analyst attached
the relevant excerpt from a copy of the bond to his affidavit. This
evidence was sufficient for Great American to establish the precise
language of the subject forum selection clause.

A similar (sort of) issue popped up in the Second Department not too long ago.

The bold is mine.

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